Facts and statistics
- enghunan.gov.cn, China.org.cn, April 21, 2015
Population and ethnic groups
Hunan is one of the most populated provinces in China, ranking seventh in the country, with an average population density of 311 people per square kilometer, which is more than double the national average density. At the end of 2012, the total population of Hunan was 66.39 million, 433,000 more than the previous year, among which the urban population is 30.97 million and urbanization rate amounted to 46.7 percent. Hunan also has fairly large minority populations; the Han population accounts for 89.9 percent of the total population, while the population of other ethnic groups accounts for 10.1 percent. Among the population of other ethnic groups, Tujia has a population of more than 2.6 million, Miao a population of more than 1.90 million, Dong a population of more than 800, 000, and Yao a population of more than 700,000.
Hunan has over 5.7 million followers of Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism and Protestantism, 7,750 clergy, and 5,313 sites of religious activity. There are three religious institutes: the Hunan Buddhist Academy, Hunan Bible School, and Class of China Taoist College on Mount Hengshan, in addition to the Hunan Islamic Education and Training Center.
Hunan attaches a lot of attention to friendly global exchanges. At present, cities such as Changsha, Zhuzhou, Xiangtan, Hengyang, Yueyang and Shaoyang have established sister city relations with 52 cities in 22 countries. Hunan Province has also established sister province relations with seven provinces (states, areas, counties) in countries including the United States, France and Japan.
Hunan is connected with other provinces and neighboring cities in the country through major state roads, highways and railway links radiating in all directions.
A total of 1,290 kilometers of high-speed rail and 5,493 kilometers of expressway ran through Hunan as of the end of 2014, ranking first and fifth in the country, respectively.
Nine major railways – including the Beijing-Guangzhou line, the Hunan-Guangxi line and the Luoyang-Zhanjiang Line – link the province to all regions of the country.
Hunan boasts 373 navigable rivers and roughly 11,500 kilometers of inland waterways, ranking third in the country. Its water transport network is centered around Dongting Lake with the Xiang, Zi, Yuan and Li rivers serving as major arteries. Over 207 million tons of cargo were shipped along Hunan's waterways in 2013, up 10.6 percent from 2012. Chenglinji Port in the city of Yueyang is one of China's top ten largest inland ports; more than 100 million tons of cargo passes through it annually.
International business travelers may find it easy to get to and from Hunan, as the province is home to Changsha Huanghua International Airport and Zhangjiajie Hehua Airport. There are also four domestic airports in the province: Changde Taohuayuan Airport, Huaihua Zhijiang Airport, Yongzhou Lingling Airport and Hengyang Nanyue Airport.
Hunan hosts 123 airlines, and flights connect the province with 75 major domestic and international cities, including Hong Kong, Macao, Taipei, Bangkok, Osaka, Seoul and Singapore.
Changsha Huanghua International Airport saw passenger traffic of 16 million in 2013, ranking first in central China and 12th nationwide.