- enghunan.gov.cn, China.org.cn, April 21, 2015
Hunan has a long history as one of the cradles of the agricultural cultivation culture of the Chinese people. More than 10,000 years ago, there were people living in Hunan. Hunan belonged to the Chu Kingdom in ancient times and was set up as Changsha County after Emperor Qinshihuang unified China in 211 B.C. Then, the Tang Dynasty established the Hunan Inspection Office there, after which it was the Hunan Route in the Song Dynasty, Huguang Province in the Ming Dynasty, and Hunan Province in the Qing Dynasty. During the Republic of China and since the establishment of the People's Republic of China, it has been Hunan Province.
Hunan has a large number of cultural relics, including more than 30 Paleolithic ruins and more than 900 Neolithic ruins. The earliest primitive rice from more than 12,000 years ago was discovered there, and the graves of the ancestors of the Chinese people, Emperor Yan Di and Emperor Shun Di, are also in Hunan. In addition, Hunan’s deep cultural background is also indicated by the massive Shang Dynasty bronzewares unearthed in Ningxiang, the Western Han Dynasty ancient grave unearthed in Changsha Mawangdui, the inscribed bamboo tablets from the time of Three Kingdoms unearthed in Zoumalou, the inscribed Qin bamboo tablets of unearthed in Long Shan Liye, the ancient Southern Great Wall discovered in Fenghuang County, as well as the Yuelu Academy of Classical Learning.
Hunan has long had a fine reputation as "the Kingdom of Chu, the unique home of many talents; the Academy of Yuelu, the very cradle of talents." It has never been short of talents in history. In 105 A.D, Cai Lun from Leiyang in Hunan made the first paper in the world from plant tissues, one of the Four Great Inventions of Ancient China. Zhou Dunyi, founder of theoretical study in the Song and Ming Dynasties was from Yongzhou, Hunan, and the outstanding 17th century thinker Wang Fuzhi was from Hengyang in Hunan. During the 79 years from the Opium War to the "May Fourth Movement," many outstanding people came from Hunan, such as Wei Yuan, Zeng Guofan, He Shaoji, Zuo Zongtang, Tan Sitong, Chen Tianhua, Huang Xing, Cai E and so on. During the establishment of the People's Republic of China, Hunan also contributed a lot of leaders of the Party, government and army, including Mao Zedong, Ren Bishi, Liu Shaoqi, Peng Dehuai, He Long, Luo Ronghuan and so on. They took the change and reform of the world as their own duty, rewrote China's history and affected the world pattern. At the same time, innumerable outstanding talents in literature, art, science, education have also emerged from Hunan.